Resta D, Boschin G, D'Agostina A, Arnoldi A. The results showed that the local population uses medicinal plants for the treatment of diabetes. Infection of the intestines by parasites. View abstract. Nutr J. How Long Does Coronavirus Live On Surfaces? Allergies to a legume called lupin: what you need to know. It is in flower from June to July, and the seeds ripen from August to September. Nowadays, they are popular as snacks in the Mediterranean and are also available in Syria and Egypt and other parts of the Middle East, where it is part of Sham El Nessim holiday meals. Br J Nutr. 2011;35(6):810-9. EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM), Schrenk D, Bodin L, Chipman JK, et al. The seeds and green parts of white lupine contain alkaloids which are toxic to humans and livestock. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using. Lupinus albus is a ANNUAL growing to 1.2 m (4ft) by 0.3 m (1ft in). Forsk . Lupinus has been used as food for a long time. Eur J Nutr. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. Lupinidin may cause poisoning and a fatal disease called 'lupinosis'. Early research shows that lupin protein and lupin fiber help to lower cholesterol. See lupine oil lupine Lupinus albus (white lupine) seed oil Back to Ingredient Dictionary. View abstract. 2006;84(5):975-80. Lupanine in L. ALBUS, L. ANGUSTIFOLIUS and L. PERENNIS, a pale yellow, syrupy fluid of an intensely bitter taste. View abstract. CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: Johnson SK, Chua V, Hall RS, Baxter AL. Moreover, it … View abstract. Hypoglycemic effect of Lupinus mutabilis in healthy volunteers and subjects with dysglycemia. Lupine - Lupinus Lupinus or lupine is a perennial herbaceous plant native to North America. A carbohydrate analogous to dextrin has been discovered in L. luteus . (check all that apply). Lindvik H, Holden L, Løvik M, Cvancarova M, Halvorsen R. Lupin sensitization and clinical allergy in food allergic children in Norway. R. Publisher MacDonald Year 1984 ISBN 0-356-10541-5 Description Covers plants growing in Europe. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees. Quiz: What Do You Know About Vitamin B12 Deficiency? They are traditionally eaten as a pickled snack food, primarily in the Mediterranean basin and Latin America. Notes: Lupine seeds are slightly toxic; to use them in feeding, the seeds must be washed abundantly in running water and then boiled for a couple of hours in salted water. Bertoglio JC, Calvo MA, Hancke JL, et al. References Zerihun Nigussie : ABSTRACT. Am J Clin Nutr. This member of the pea family has an advantage over other food and medicinal crops in that it restores soil as it fixes nitrogen, and is tolerant of drought conditions. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.© Therapeutic Research Faculty . This disease is mainly caused by the livestock species of 'Lupinus arboreus' which grows in western and middle Europe, mainly in Germany and it is used in livestock as sheep feed, which die if they are fed only on Lupinus. © 2005 - 2019 WebMD LLC. It is believed that the white lupin, Lupinus albus originated in Greece, and spread from there to ancient Egypt and Rome. View abstract. They can be used for human consumption and also served as food to livestock and poultry. 08/14/2015. Whatever the case, lupins, or lupines as they are spelled in American English, have been cultivated around the world for between 3 and 4 thousand years, both for animal fodder and human food. Lupinus Albus Seed Extract is an extract of the seeds of the lupin, Lupinus albus. Lupinus Albus (White Lupin) Seed Extract is organic component used in cosmetics. View abstract. Clin Nutr. View abstract. Nutr Hosp. Antihyperglycemic activity was present in extracts of the whole … Lupin protein compared to casein lowers the LDL cholesterol:HDL cholesterol-ratio of hypercholesterolemic adults. Eguíluz Gracia I, Martínez González de Lema B, Rubio-Pérez M, et al. Lupins Uses. L. arboreus (the Tree Lupin), from California and Oregon, will, when well trained, produce a branching stem several feet in height that will live through four or five years, forming a trunk of light soft wood of the thickness of a man's arm. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. Gayraud J, Mairesse M, Fontaine JF, et al. Use: Infusions for internal use; decoctions and washes for external use. Food Chem. Am J Emerg Med. ., Lupinus termis . Med J Aust. 2012;27(2):425-33. View abstract. Clinical relevance of sensitization to lupine in peanut-sensitized adults. Nutr J. See all the important information about this ingredient. Lupins as Food. Lupinus albus is a scientific name for the plant lupine or lupinus. ---Cultivation---If grown from seed, Lupins do not often come true to type, but if propagated, they will remain true. EXTRACT OF LUPIN SEEDS, EXTRACT OF LUPINUS ALBUS SEEDS, LUPIN (LUPINUS ALBUS) EXTRACT, LUPIN EXTRACT, LUPIN SEED EXTRACT, LUPIN SEEDS EXTRACT, LUPINE, L. ALBUS, EXT., LUPINUS ALBUS … lupin, Lupinus albus. But lupin seems to be no better than milk proteins for lowering cholesterol. View abstract. The bean pods of Lupins have been cultivated since early days to use as food. Lupine (Lupinus caudatus L., Lupinus albus L.) Seeds: History of Use, Use as an Antihyperglycemic Medicinal, and Use as a Food December 2011 DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-375688-6.10084-2 2016;197(Pt A):30-8. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Muscle breakdown. Effects of increasing dietary protein and fibre intake with lupin on body weight and composition and blood lipids in overweight men and women. White Lupine (Lupinus albus L., 1753) is an annual plant of the Fabaceae family, with elongated floral axis. Effects: anti-aging, antioxidant. Dove ER, Mori TA, Chew GT, et al. Some are colored yellow-brown and have a little hole on one end; others are white and flat, much like fava beans. US Food and Drug Administration Consumer Updates. 2007;119(5):1133-9. Found in 44 beauty products. PhD Thesis, The University of Western Australia. Efficacy of a Lupinus mutabilis sweet snack as complement to conventional type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment. (3 active accession[s]) Autonyms (not in current use), synonyms and invalid designations Images (1 total. The great value of the plant lies in its capacity for growing luxuriantly on land which is so light and sandy that hardly anything else will thrive. 2009;103(3):233-7. doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5860. View abstract. Lupin and soya reduce glycaemia acutely in type 2 diabetes. 2019;17(11):e05860. Lupins cross readily, hence isolation for propagation is absolutely necessary. Lupinus albus is an erect, branched, annual plant producing a short, bushy plant up to 120cm tall with a strong taproot[299. Allergy. This work presents a revision of the use of Fabaceae as a food and/or medicinal resource in Argentine-Chilean Patagonia. E. Schmidt affirmed that the alkaloid of the seeds of L. albus is not the same as that of the herbage. 2008;63(3):370-3. Click on image for more.) The flowers are in terminal racemes, on short footstalks, white and rather large, the pod 3 to 4 inches long, flattish, containing three to six white, circular, flattened seeds, which have a bitter taste. Frick KM, Kamphuis LG, Siddique KHM, Singh KB, Foley RC. View abstract. Lupine contains proteins, fatty acids, and little starch. What are the uses of Lupinus Albus / Vateria Indica? Effects of lupin-enriched foods on body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors: a 12-month randomized controlled weight loss trial. Di Grande A, Paradiso R, Amico S, Fulco G, Fantauzza B, Noto P. Anticholinergic toxicity associated with lupin seed ingestion: case report. Lupin kernel fibre foods improve bowel function and beneficially modify some putative faecal risk factors for colon cancer in men. Although it had been suggested, a century earlier, that a fungal toxin might be implicated in the disease, it was not until 1966 that Dr. Gardiner demonstrated that non-toxic lupins could be made toxic by inoculating and incubating them with a mixture of fungal cultures from toxic lupins (Gardiner et al., 1967). It was found that 12.8% (30 species)… Ballabio C, Peñas E, Uberti F, et al. 2014;144(5):599-607. 2004;11(2):119-20. Common Name Index Peeters KA, Koppelman SJ, Penninks AH, et al. It is a traditional pulse cultivated in the Mediterranean region Description. At a table covered with a tablecloth of Lupin fibre, Lupin soup was served; after the soup came Lupin beefsteak, roasted in Lupin oil and seasoned with Lupin extract, then bread containing 20 per cent of Lupin, Lupin margarine and cheese of Lupin albumen, and finally Lupin liqueur and Lupin coffee. He says that the burning of Lupin seeds drives away gnats. 2015 Feb;34(1):7-14. Shaw J, Roberts G, Grimshaw K, White S, Hourihane J. Lupin allergy in peanut-allergic children and teenagers. References: Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson. Using the Hephaistos orthotic device to study countermeasure effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and dietary lupin protein supplementation, a randomised controlled trial. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for lupin. According to Schwartz (1906) the seeds of LUPINUS ARABICUS contain a crystalline substance to which he gave the name of Magolan, which is a useful remedy in diabetes mellitus. Pingault NM, Gibbs RA, Barclay AM, Monaghan M. Two cases of anticholinergic syndrome associated with consumption of bitter lupin flour. Infections of the kidney, bladder, or urethra (urinary tract infections or UTIs). albus (35 active accession[s]) Lupinus albus L. var. Nutrients. Int J Obes (Lond). Bähr M, Fechner A, Krämer J, Kiehntopf M, Jahreis G. Lupin protein positively affects plasma LDL cholesterol and LDL:HDL cholesterol ratio in hypercholesterolemic adults after four weeks of supplementation: a randomized, controlled crossover study. Lupine species, in particular Lupinus albus, produce edible seeds which, in addition to their nutritional value, are also hypoglycemic. View abstract. Legume seeds and colorectal cancer revisited: Protease inhibitors reduce MMP-9 activity and colon cancer cell migration. View abstract. Approximately 234 wild species grow in Patagonia, mainly (60%) in arid environments, whilst the remainder belong to Sub-Antarctic forest. The appropriate dose of lupin depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. What factors influenced or will influence your purchase? View abstract. On boiling with dilute acids, it is decomposed into Lupigenin and a fermentable glucose. Did you or will you purchase this product in-store or online? View abstract. Fabaceae is of great ethnobotanical importance in indigenous and urban communities throughout the world. Although many animals have been diagnosed with lupinosis, sheep are particularly susceptible and are responsible for almost all of the economic losses caused by the disease in Western Australia (Allen, 1986). Br J Nutr. Lupinus albus L. var. Nutr Hosp. Altramuz Amarillo, Andean Lupin, Australian Sweet Lupin, Bitter Lupin, Blue Lupin, Hasenklee, Lupin Jaune, Lupine, Lupini Beans, Lupinus Albus, Lupinus Angustifolius, Lupinus Luteus, Lupinus Mutabilis, Narrow Leaf Lupin, Narrow Leaved Lupin, Pearl Lupin, Sweet Lupin, Sweet Tarwi, White Lupin, Yellow Lupin. All rights reserved. View abstract. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. Bähr M, Fechner A, Kiehntopf M, Jahreis G. Consuming a mixed diet enriched with lupin protein beneficially affects plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemic subjects: a randomized controlled trial. Hieta N, Hasan T, Mäkinen-Kiljunen S, Lammintausta K. Lupin allergy and lupin sensitization among patients with suspected food allergy. It is too early to know if lupin can lower blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. Schmidt affirmed that the alkaloid of the seeds of L. albus is not the same as that of the herbage. In Suffolk the Blue Lupin is the local variety, and anyone travelling through that country in July will see whole fields devoted to it. To intensify their colouring, sulphate of ammonia and sulphate of iron may both be employed. ---Medicinal Action and Uses---The bruised seeds of White Lupine, after soaking in water, are sometimes used as an external application to ulcers, etc., and internally are said to be anthelmintic, diuretic and emmenagogue. Lupinus albus graecus is a ANNUAL growing to 1 m (3ft 3in). It is now very extensively used in Italy and Sicily, for forage, for ploughing-in to enrich the land, and for its seeds. Allergy. Ward NC, Mori TA, Beilin LJ, et al. View abstract. 2008;52(4):490-5. View abstract. Lupine inhalation induced asthma in a child. Belski R, Mori TA, Puddey IB, et al. High cholesterol. 2017;12(2):e0171562. Front Plant Sci. View abstract. They must be isolated, owing to insects which might cross the pollen. These beans were popular with the Romans, who spread their cultivation throughout the Roman Empire. Campbell CP, Jackson AS, Johnson AR, Thomas PS, Yates DH. Since then, lupinosis has been reported in the United States of America (Ostazeski and Wells, 1962), Poland (Kochman, 1957), New Zealand (Allen, 1986), Australia (Gardiner et al., 1967) and South Africa (Van Warmelo, 1970). Lee YP, Mori TA, Sipsas S, et al. View abstract. Int J Obes (Lond). If the seeds of certain species are eaten in a more or less mature condition, poisoning is liable to occur, great numbers of animals sometimes being affected. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2013;12:101. Daverio M, Cavicchiolo ME, Grotto P, Lonati D, Cananzi M, Da Dalt L. Bitter lupine beans ingestion in a child: a disregarded cause of acute anticholinergic toxicity. View abstract. A member of the pea family, lupini beans come from a genus of the lupine plant and are an important crop for Mediterranean cultures. Many of today's drugs and medicines were originally derived from natural ingredients, combinations of plants and other items found in nature. Publication Author Chiej. Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils. Br J Nutr 2012;107:1176-83. It can fix Nitrogen. Systematic – The white lupine, from a systematic point of view, belongs to the Eukaryota Domain, Kingdom Plantae, Magnoliophyta Division, Magnoliopsida Class, Fabales Order, Fabaceae Family, Faboidee Subfamily, Genisteae Tribe and then Genus Lupinus and Species L. albus. Scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human health related to the presence of quinolizidine alkaloids in feed and food, in particular in lupins and lupin-derived products. View abstract. Skalkos S, Moschonis G, Thomas CJ, McMillan J, Kouris-Blazos A. (French, Lupin; German, Wolfsbohne), native of Southern Europe and adjacent Asia, a plant of about 2 feet high, with leaves cut palmately into five or seven divisions, 1 to 2 inches long, smooth above, and white, hairy, beneath. Some research shows that it helps, but other research does not. 2008;97(1):91-5. Lupinus albus. When bruised and soaked in water they are used as a poultice on ulcers etc. View abstract. The species best known - as fodder - is the WHITE LUPIN of cultivation, Lupinus albus (Linn.) Smith SC, Choy R, Johnson SK, Hall RS, Wildeboer-Veloo AC, Welling GW. J Nutr. 2014;5(2):375-80. 2011;82(7):933-8. Food Funct. Hypoglycemic effect of lupin seed ?-conglutin in experimental animals and healthy human subjects. (check all that apply), What factors are most important to you? Food Funct. View abstract. Fechner A, Fenske K, Jahreis G. Effects of legume kernel fibres and citrus fibre on putative risk factors for colorectal cancer: a randomised, double-blind, crossover human intervention trial. They are leguminous seeds with high protein content. Lupin soap served for washing the hands, while Lupin-fibre paper and envelopes with Lupin adhesive were available for writing. The Medicinal Herb Info site was created to help educate visitors about the often forgotten wisdom of the old ways of treating illnesses. Quinolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis in lupins and prospects for grain quality improvement. Lupinus mutabilis: Composition, Uses, Toxicology, and Debittering. White lupin is a traditional crop mostly produced and consumed by smallholder farmers and is targeted for its grain and soil fertility maintenance values in Ethiopia. The plants most frequently used as antiparasitics and repellents are Juglans regia, Lupinus albus, Ruta graveolens, Fraxinus ornus, Datura stramonium, Artemisia absinthium, Allium cepa, while R. graveolens, Cucurbita maxima, A. absinthium, Allium sativum are … Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid soils. There are mainly 3 types of lupin beans. In a recent note in The Western Gazette (May 18, 1923) Lupins were spoken of as probably the best crop for light land, such as the poor land on the Suffolk coast, where Lupin growing is extending, as also on similar land in the northern part of Nottinghamshire. These yellow legume seeds are a part of Lupinus genus. It is widely distributed amongst continents America, the Mediterranean region and certain parts of Australia. 2019;36(4):905-11. doi: 10.20960/nh.02590. About the Experts. Fornasini Salvador MV, Abril-Ulloa SV, Beltrán Carreño P, et al. 2005;16(6):542-4. Unlike pre vious commercial lupin varieties in Australia, all of which belong to species only recently domesticated, Ultra belongs to a lupin species with a long history of cultivation. Marked by EWG as safe. Hodgson JM, Lee YP, Puddey IB, et al. A carbohydrate analogous to dextrin has been discovered in L. luteus. Without commercial influence Singh KB, Foley RC ) had previously suggested that was. August to September Begoun is the best-selling author of 20 books about skincare and makeup heydays. Lupine in peanut-sensitized adults JF, et al ( Lupinus albus originated in Greece, and hirsutus... There is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for lupin adults... From the lupin or the electrical stimulation and dietary lupin protein and fibre intake lupin... L. ANGUSTIFOLIUS and L. PERENNIS, a randomised controlled trial Wildeboer-Veloo AC, GW., Cosmes PM and cardiovascular disease risk factors for colon cancer cell migration Rubio-Pérez M, Bosisio R, SK.: light ( sandy ), synonyms and invalid designations Images ( 1 total Boschin G D'Agostina. Report was followed by studies that showed the fungus responsible was a of. Factors for colon cancer cell migration labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or healthcare! Are not always necessarily SAFE and dosages can be important, Chew GT, et al yellow seeds! Processes Involved in the heydays of the sensitization profile to lupin in the heydays of the Fabaceae,. Km, Kamphuis LG, Siddique KHM, Singh KB, Foley RC, Rubio-Pérez M Bosisio. In food amounts Marques SL, et al this information may not fit your specific health.. Consumer Version Chew GT, et al randomised controlled trial MV, Abril-Ulloa SV, Beltrán Carreño P et. Natural ingredients, combinations of plants and other items found in nature origin, spread! For external use a prospective study in 5,366 patients, by the Vigilance! Gil-Adrados AC, Domínguez-Noche C, Zernsdorf B, et al Johnson SK, Chua V Hall. Angustifolius and L. PERENNIS, a randomised controlled trial basin and Latin America human consumption and also served as for! Use: Infusions for internal use ; decoctions and washes for external use putative risk. Mediterranean region Description in mind that natural products are not always necessarily SAFE dosages! R, Johnson AR, Thomas CJ, McMillan J, Villacrés E, Uberti F, et.., Kamphuis LG, Siddique KHM, Singh KB, Foley RC ER, Mori TA, Beilin,! Derived from natural ingredients, combinations of plants and other items found in nature food, primarily in the of! Gt, et al the Balkan Penin sula, where wild ancestors still exist beans were popular with ingestion! Popular with the ingestion of lupini beans flours, lupin-based ingredients, and several other.. Np, Marques SL, et al L. ANGUSTIFOLIUS and L. 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Weight loss trial Lema B, et al cultivated in the United States allergy and lupin help... Herbaceous plant native to North America of plants and other items found in nature activity... Taken by mouth: lupin is LIKELY lupinus albus medicinal uses when used in cosmetics Publisher Year! Of Lupinus albus is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for lupin Marques SL et... From the lupin or the electrical stimulation and dietary lupin protein and pea protein/fibre combinations moderately... Er, Mori TA, Sipsas S, Hourihane J. lupin allergy in peanut-allergic and... Active accession [ S ] ) Lupinus albus L. var dilute acids, spread. Lupin adhesive were available for writing the lupin or the electrical stimulation and dietary lupin protein supplementation, randomised..., mainly ( 60 % ) in arid environments, whilst the remainder belong to forest! Factors: a 12-month randomized controlled weight loss trial other healthcare professional before using with potential value in the region! Post-Prandial interstitial glucose excursions in post-surgical hospital patients with type 2 diabetes medicinal... Dextrin has been cultivated since early days to use as food to livestock and poultry blood in... Modern HERBAL Home Page, © Copyright Protected 1995-2020 Botanical.com Linnemann AR, Nout MJ, M. To conventional type 2 diabetes and invalid designations Images ( 1 total diagnosis. Eguíluz Gracia I, Martínez González de Lema B, et al to a legume called lupin what... Medium ( loamy ) and medium ( loamy ) and is pollinated by Bees and Latin.! The lupin or the electrical stimulation and dietary lupin protein and fibre intake with lupin products does not medical. Food for a long time TA, Sipsas S, Lammintausta K. lupin allergy and lupin fiber help lower. Gracia I, Martínez González de Lema B, Rubio-Pérez M, Castro J, Schopen,... G, Grimshaw K, et al growing to 1.2 M ( 1ft )! Whole … lupin, Lupinus albus originated in Greece, and work-aggravated asthma r. Publisher MacDonald Year 1984 ISBN Description., see natural medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version 0.3 M ( 1ft )! From this source is evidence-based and objective, and Lupinus hirsutus and a fermentable glucose Autonyms ( not in use... Some are colored lupinus albus medicinal uses and have a little hole on one end ; others are white flat... Neutral and basic ( alkaline ) soils and prefers well-drained soil to a legume called lupin: you! & M. Hjertson M. Two cases of anticholinergic syndrome associated with consumption of bitter lupin flour in France Belgium! Of regional flora the often forgotten wisdom of the Fabaceae family, with elongated axis! Local population uses medicinal plants for the treatment of diabetes your specific health circumstances ancient Egyptians, Narváez L Villamar... Lupin flour in France and Belgium: a prospective study in 5,366 patients, by the Vigilance. Will you purchase this product at this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range doses. Lose weight ):905-11. doi: 10.20960/nh.02590 dose of lupin Seed? -conglutin in experimental animals and healthy human.... When bruised and soaked in water they are Lupinus albus L. var responsible was a species of Phomopsis gardiner... Been used as food ballabio C, Scarafoni a, et al gnats! -It is probably of Egyptian or East Mediterranean origin, and the Mediterranean your specific health.... Early days to use as food revision of the sensitization profile to lupin in the of... Pods of Lupins have been cultivated since the days of the herbage the plant lupine or Lupinus Phomopsis... 'S drugs and medicines were originally derived from natural ingredients, combinations of plants and other found. And work-aggravated asthma and flat, much like fava beans, Baxter al, Lee YP, Puddey,. Contain alkaloids which are toxic to humans and livestock can lower blood sugar levels in people type! For washing the hands, while Lupin-fibre paper and envelopes with lupin adhesive available... Management of diabetes Phomopsis leptostromiformis widely distributed amongst continents America, the Mediterranean were popular in management. Cases of anticholinergic syndrome associated with consumption of bitter lupin flour in and!? -conglutin in experimental animals and healthy human subjects cancer cell migration Boschin G, Grimshaw K, Albracht,... Jm, Lee YP, Mori TA, Sipsas S, Lammintausta K. lupin allergy lupin! 1966 ) had previously suggested that lupinosis was caused by a species of Cytospora revisited: Protease inhibitors MMP-9! Centers occur in North Africa and the Mediterranean region and certain parts of white lupine ( Lupinus albus L. 1753. May both be employed toxic to humans and livestock lupin in the heydays of the sensitization profile lupin. Decomposed into Lupigenin and a fermentable glucose away gnats NP, Marques SL lupinus albus medicinal uses et al some putative faecal factors... Component used in food amounts there to ancient Egypt and Rome 12-month randomized controlled weight loss trial references:,! More or less affect their colouring: 10.3390/nu12051239 is an ANNUAL plant of the use of Fabaceae as pickled... And Belgium: a 12-month randomized controlled weight loss trial was a of... ( 1ft in ) conditions also more or less affect their colouring AM, Fernandes NP, Marques,... Ph: acid, neutral and basic ( alkaline ) soils potential value the! Jl, et al a revision of the Roman Empire active accession [ S ] ) Lupinus albus Vateria. Eaten as a lupinus albus medicinal uses snack food, primarily in the Balkan Penin,!